Social movements may focus on equal rights, such as the s movement for same-sex marriage, or they may focus on liberation, as in the gay liberation movement of the s and s. Earlier movements focused on self-help and self-acceptance, such as the homophile movement of the s. Although there is not a primary or an overarching central organization that represents all LGBT people and their interests, numerous LGBT rights organizations are active worldwide. The earliest organizations to support LGBT rights were formed in the early 20th century.
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Benedict's election as pope occurred in the papal conclave that followed the death of Pope John Paul II. Benedict chose to be known by the title " pope emeritus " upon his resignation. Ordained as a priest in in his native Bavaria , Ratzinger embarked on an academic career and established himself as a highly regarded theologian by the late s. He was appointed a full professor in at the age of After a long career as a professor of theology at several German universities, he was appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising and Cardinal by Pope Paul VI in , an unusual promotion for someone with little pastoral experience. In , he was appointed Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith , one of the most important dicasteries of the Roman Curia. From until his election as pope, he was also Dean of the College of Cardinals.
Pope Benedict XVI
LGBT rights opposition is the opposition to legal rights , proposed or enacted, for lesbian , gay , bisexual , and transgender people. Organizations influential in LGBT rights opposition frequently oppose the enactment of laws making same-sex marriage legal, the passage of anti-discrimination laws aimed at curtailing anti-LGBT discrimination , including in employment and housing, the passage of anti-bullying laws to protect LGBT minors, laws decriminalizing same-gender relationships, and other LGBT rights related laws. These groups are often religious or socially conservative in nature. Such opposition can be motivated by homophobia , transphobia , bigotry , animosity,  religion , moral beliefs , political ideologies , or other reasons. Laws that LGBT rights opponents may be opposed to include civil unions or partnerships , LGBT parenting and adoption , military service , access to assisted reproductive technology , and access to sex reassignment surgery and hormone replacement therapy for transgender individuals.
Even as some well-known anti-gay groups like Focus on the Family moderate their views, a hard core of smaller groups, most of them religiously motivated, have continued to pump out demonizing propaganda aimed at homosexuals and other sexual minorities. Of the 18 groups profiled below, the Southern Poverty Law Center SPLC will be listing 13 next year as hate groups, reflecting further research into their views; those are each marked with an asterisk. Viewing homosexuality as unbiblical does not qualify organizations for listing as hate groups.